O121-C2-015100 - DBMS passwords must not be stored in compiled, encoded, or encrypted batch jobs or compiled, encoded, or encrypted application source code.
Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised. The storage of passwords in application source or batch job code that is compiled, encoded, or encrypted prevents compliance with password expiration and other management requirements, as well as provides another means for potential discovery. This requirement applies equally to those accounts managed by Oracle and those managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-wide mechanism. This requirement should not be construed as prohibiting or discouraging the encryption of source code, which remains an advisable precaution. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered. NOTE: Nessus has not performed this check. Please review the benchmark to ensure target compliance.
Design DBMS application code and batch job code that is compiled, encoded or encrypted, to NOT contain passwords. - - - - - Oracle provides the capability to provide for a secure external password facility. Use the Oracle mkstore to create a secure storage area for passwords for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use or deploy a site-authorized facility to perform this function. Check to see what has been stored in the Oracle External Password Store To view all contents of a client wallet external password store, check specific credentials by viewing them. Listing the external password store contents provides information can use to decide whether to add or delete credentials from the store. To list the contents of the external password store, enter the following command at the command line: $ mkstore -wrl wallet_location -listCredential For example: $ mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -listCredential The wallet_location specifies the path to the directory where the wallet, whose external password store contents is to be viewed, is located. This command lists all of the credential database service names (aliases) and the corresponding user name (schema) for that database. Passwords are not listed. Configuring Clients to Use the External Password Store If the client is already configured to use external authentication, such as Windows native authentication or Transport Layer Security (TLS), then Oracle Database uses that authentication method. The same credentials used for this type of authentication are typically also used to log on to the database. For clients not using such authentication methods or wanting to override them for database authentication, can set the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter in sqlnet.ora to TRUE. The default value for SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE is FALSE, allowing standard use of authentication credentials as before. If wanting a client to use the secure external password store feature, then perform the following configuration task: 1. Create a wallet on the client by using the following syntax at the command line: mkstore -wrl wallet_location -create For example: mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -create Enter password: password The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet is to be created and stored. This command creates an Oracle wallet with the autologon feature enabled at the location specified. The autologon feature enables the client to access the wallet contents without supplying a password. The mkstore utility -create option uses password complexity verification. 2. Create database connection credentials in the wallet by using the following syntax at the command line: mkstore -wrl wallet_location -createCredential db_connect_string username Enter password: password For example: mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -createCredential oracle system Enter password: password In this specification: The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet was created. The db_connect_string used in the CONNECT /@db_connect_string statement must be identical to the db_connect_string specified in the -createCredential command. The db_connect_string is the TNS alias used to specify the database in the tnsnames.ora file or any service name used to identify the database on an Oracle network. By default, tnsnames.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX systems and in ORACLE_HOME\network\admin on Windows. The username is the database logon credential. When prompted, enter the password for this user. 3. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the WALLET_LOCATION parameter and set it to the directory location of the wallet created in Step 1. For example, if the wallet was created in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin and Oracle home is set to /private/ora12, then need to enter the following into your client sqlnet.ora file: WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin) ) ) 4. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter and set it to TRUE as follows: SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE setting causes all CONNECT /@db_connect_string statements to use the information in the wallet at the specified location to authenticate to databases. When external authentication is in use, an authenticated user with such a wallet can use the CONNECT /@db_connect_string syntax to access the previously specified databases without providing a user name and password. However, if a user fails that external authentication, then these connect statements also fail. Below is a sample sqlnet.ora file with the WALLET_LOCATION and the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameters set as described in Steps 3 and 4. Below is a sample SQLNET.ORA File with Wallet Parameters Set WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin) ) ) SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE SSL_VERSION = 1.2 (Note: this assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file, 'Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf' for how to find multiple and/or differently-located sqlnet.ora files.)