Passwords are just so easy to abuse... It was interesting to see that the top scorer in the game (who went by the handle of "ftp", and coincidentally had 21 scores in the first day of game play!) did not use fancy new exploits, 0day attacks or a wide range of open-source or even commercial tools. He was able to gain access to systems because the teams left default or easily guessable passwords set on some of the Linux servers. He used SSH to login to the systems, then SCP to upload some Python code, that was used to update the scoring engine. From there he was able to maintain access, not by rootkit technology or anything sophisticated, but just hiding in plain sight. The Python script makes a TCP connection to the scoring server and sends a message. It was moved into a file called "/dev/vfat", to make it look like a system file. Next, a shell script was written to call the python script every ten minutes. This file was called "getty" and ran in the background, and was also inserted into the startup scripts to ensure it kept running. The teams never found these processes running and "ftp" won the game, no exploits required. Hacker "ftp" at work, winning the game using built-in tools such as bash, python and SSH.